Chemical elements dating game

It's here we find elements at their most elemental, because every nucleus contains protons, and it's the number of protons that determines what kind of element the atom is. Every high school student has seen the elements chart, but author Theo Gray's version is unique: handmade, with each element's identity card meticulously carved into the wood.

One proton is hydrogen; two protons, helium; three protons, lithium; four protons, beryllium; all the way up to element 118, with 118 protons. But, I have to say, I've never completely gotten it right. And if you think about it, the name of each element is the least important piece of information you could possibly have.

The number of protons is called the atomic number and it's the fundamental organizing principle of every table of the elements, including this one. They're filled with stats and figures that don't make any sense to the ordinary person. What matters about elements is that they are real physical substances with properties and things you can do with them. I have to say many of these elements look the way you would think—gold looks like gold, silver looks like silver—but not all of them.

Like all elements, gold is an atom that gets its identity from tiny particles: positively charged protons in the nucleus, balanced by negatively charged electrons all around, plus neutrons, which have no charge at all. It's virtually indestructible, yet also soft and malleable.And I wouldn't mind taking a look at these under your magic microscope. Scientists have understood, since the early 20th century, that metals are crystals; that is, they have an orderly arrangement of atoms. They're, they're like a little aerial photo of a planned community. The atoms in our bronze are unusually well ordered.By bombarding samples with x-rays they were able to create shadowy images of that crystal structure, but the idea that we might one day see actual atoms was beyond imagination. Our bell makers must be true masters of their craft.Where do nature's building blocks, called the elements, come from? Her job is to figure out how much gold is in them there rocks. I don't see any more rocks in here, but the bad news is, I don't see any gold in here, either. Final steps: cool and clean the bars, stamp them with their unique serial numbers and their weights. The ancients first learned how to heat rocks to extract copper, at least 7,000 years ago. Traders in New York, London and Shanghai buy and sell more than 20 million tons a year. Copper has been prized for millennia for its unique properties: it conducts electricity better than any metal except silver; it's malleable and has a moderate melting temperature; it even scares away bacteria. Even with all the other modern materials available, they still choose bronze. Hasn't something better come along, after all these years? The quality of the sound depends on the atomic structure of the material.They're the hidden ingredients of everything in our world, from the carbon in our bodies to the metals in our smartphones. The good news is that we haven't finished; there may be still gold hiding in the mix. And, today, it's one of the most widely bought and sold metals in the world. Copper is in wire, electronics and computer chips, plumbing and other building materials. These guys can trade their copper futures; I've got to unload my copper today. In pure metals, the atoms are arranged in orderly rows and columns.